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笛卡尔方法论

笛卡尔在《谈谈方法》中写道:

一、永远不接受任何我自己不清楚的真理,就是说要尽量避免鲁莽和偏见,只能是根据自己的判断非常清楚和确定,没有任何值得怀疑的地方的真理。就是说只要没有经过自己切身体会的问题,.不管有什么权威的结论,都可以怀疑。

The first was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such; that is to say, carefully to avoid precipitancy and prejudice, and to comprise nothing more in my judgment than what was presented to my mind so clearly and distinctly as to exclude all ground of doubt.

二、可以将要研究的复杂问题,尽量分解为多个比较简单的小问题,一个一个地分开解决。

The second, to divide each of the difficulties under examination into as many parts as possible, and as might be necessary for its adequate solution.

三、将这些小问题从简单到复杂排列,先从容易解决的问题着手。

The third, to conduct my thoughts in such order that, by commencing with objects the simplest and easiest to know, I might ascend by little and little, and, as it were, step by step, to the knowledge of the more complex; assigning in thought a certain order even to those objects which in their own nature do not stand in a relation of antecedence and sequence.

四、将所有问题解决后,再综合起来检验,看是否完全,是否将问题彻底解决了。

And the last, in every case to make enumerations so complete, and reviews so general, that I might be assured that nothing was omitted.

– René Descartes, Discourse on the Method (link)

我认为我们的义务教育更应当教授和训练人们看待事务的思辨能力和处理事务的方法论,而非那些「提炼中心思想」和「体会作者意图」。